By Oke Nathaniel Atori
THE SUPREME COURT OF CANADA
The Supreme Court of Canada founded in 1875 by the Constitution Act 1867 and Supreme Court Act 1875 is the highest court in Canada.
It is made up of Nine(9) Justices including the head of the Supreme Court who is called Chief Justice of Canada.
Justices of the Supreme Court are appointed by the Governor-General in Council, a process whereby the governor general and viceregel representative of the Queen of Canada make appointment base on the advise of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada.
The first Chief Justice was William Buell Richards. The current Chief Justice is Richard Wagner.
SUPREME PEOPLE’S COURT OF CHINA
The Supreme People’s Court established in 1949 by the Constitution of The People’s Republic of China is the highest court in mainland China. Hong Kong and Macau as special administrative regions have their own seperate judicial systems.
The court is made up of Three Hundred and Forty(340) Judges including the head who is called President or Chief Justice. The Judges meet in smaller tribunals to decide cases. The court system consists of a four-level, two-hearing system trial processes.
The Judges are appointed by presidential selection with National People’s Congress approval.
The first President was Shen Junru. The current President is Zhou Qiang.
THE SUPREME COURT OF GHANA
The Supreme Court of Ghana established by the Supreme Court Ordinance 1876 during the colonial era is the highest court in Ghana. The 1992 Constitution of Ghana further guaranteed the independence of the Judiciary from the Legislative and Executive arm.
The Constitution of Ghana stipulates that the court is to be made up of the Chief Justice and not less than Nine(9) Justices.
The Justices are appointed by the President acting in consultation with Council of State and approved by Parliament.
The first indigenous Chief Justice of Ghana is Sir Kobina Arku Korsah. The current Chief Justice is Kwasi Anin-Yeboah.
FEDERAL COURT OF JUSTICE OF GERMANY
The apex courts in Germany are: Federal Constitutional Court, that handles issues of constitutional law; Federal Administrative Court, which is the highest court for administrative law; Federal Finance Court, the apex court for tax and customs matters; Federal Labour Court, top court for labour law; Federal Social Court, the apex court for social security cases; and the Federal Court of Justice established in 1950, which we are going to tackle, is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction and the Supreme Court of the last resort in all matters of criminal and civil.
Federal Court of Justice is subdivided into Twenty-five(25) Senates. Twelve(12) are Civil panels, Five(5) are criminal panels and Eight(8) are special panels.
The court is made up of the President, Vice President, Presiding Judges and several Judges.
The Judges are appointed by the President after selection by electoral committee which consists of Secretaries of Justices of the 16 German federal countries and of the 16 representatives appointed by the German Federal Parliament.
The first President of the court is Hermann Weinkauff. The current President is Bettina Limperg.
ALSO TO NOTE:
In all civil cases heard by the Federal Court of Justice, the parties need to be represented by an attorney who has been specifically admitted to the bar at the Federal Court of Justice (Rechtsanwalt beim Bundesgerichtshof). This admission is the only ‘special’ admission within the German court system, in that an attorney at the Federal Court of Justice for civil cases cannot appear in any other court in the country.
Admission at the Bundesgerichtshof is highly selective; as of May 2015 there are only 46 attorneys so admitted. Candidates for admission are nominated by an electoral committee and are then chosen and appointed by the Federal Ministry of Justice.
The requirement for a representative specifically admitted to the Federal Court of Justice does not apply in criminal cases. Here, representation by any lawyer admitted to the bar in Germany suffices.
THE SUPREME COURT OF KENYA
The Supreme Court of Kenya established under Article 163 of the Kenyan Constitution is the highest court in Kenya.
The court is composed of Seven(7) Justices: the Chief Justice of Kenya, who is the President; the Deputy Chief Justice of Kenya, who is the Vice President of the court; and Five(5) other Judges.
Justices of the court are appointed by the President under recommendation from the Judicial Service Commision and approval by the Parliament.
The first person to be appointed its President is Sir John Ainley. The current President is Hon. Justice David Maraga.
THE SUPREME COURT OF NIGERIA
The Supreme Court of Nigeria established by the 1963 Constitution of Nigeria is the highest court in Nigeria for both civil and criminal matters.
The court is made up of the Chief Justice of Nigeria and such number of Justices as may be prescribed by an Act of the National Assembly. Presently, the Supreme Court is made up of the Chief Justice and Twelve(12) other justices.
Justices of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President under recommendation from the National Judicial Council, subject to approval by the Nigerian Senate.
The first Chief Justice of Nigeria is Stafford Foster Sutton. The current Chief Justice is Hon. Mr. Justice Ibrahim Tanko Muhammad CFR.
THE SUPREME COURT OF UNITED KINGDOM
The Supreme Court founded in October 2009 by the Constitutional Reform Act, is the highest court of United Kingdom. It is a non-ministerial department of government of the United Kingdom, serving as the final court of appeal in United Kingdom for civil and criminal cases from England, Wales, Northern Ireland.
The court is made up of a President and a Deputy President and Ten(10) other justices
The Justices of the Supreme court are appointed by the Monarch (Queen-on-the-bench) on the advise of the Prime Minister following approval of a recommendation by the Secretary of State for Justice.
The first President of the Court is John Dyson. The current President is The Lord Reed of Allermuir.
Credit: WIKIPEDIA|COURTS’ WEBSITES